which ecosystem likely has the highest biodiversity?

PLEASE ANSWER QUICKLY! Given the multitude of environmental challenges the Aral Sea region countries are facing, sustainable and cost-efficient approaches are needed to secure the well-being of the local population and environmental resilience. A single grassland can contain a wide range of species, from beetles to snakes to antelopes. o adaptive immune system Cambridge University Press. Some of these genes are the same for all individuals within a speciestheyre what make a daisy a daisy and a dog a dog. States of the Union: Ranking America's Biodiversity. High niche diversity refers to the presence of multiple traits in the same or different species, which is a characteristic of ecosystems with a high biodiversity. Upon reaching certain heights and within a few years, these species are able to reduce wind erosion and subsequent dust storms drastically. All authors contributed to the study conception and design. South Ustyurt National ParkFootnote 5 total area: 14471.43km2, year of designation: 2020. When you reach out to him or her, you will need the page title, URL, and the date you accessed the resource. Nature-based AND solutions AND terrestrial, Nature-based solutions AND protected area, Nature-based AND solutions AND Central Asia. This would in turn mean increased vulnerability to droughts, decreased water availability, reduced crop yields and increased disease transmission (e.g., malaria) (Huang, Yu, Dai, Wei, & Kang, 2017), (UNCCD, 2017). National Geographic Headquarters 1145 17th Street NW Washington, DC 20036. Most medical discoveries to cure diseases and lengthen life spans were made because of research into plant and animal biology and genetics. Land Degrad Dev 31:27492762. The World Conservation Congress (p. 106). Glob Planet Change 110:114129. Arid Land Res Manag 33:3754. The Birds Head Seascape in Indonesia is home to more than 1,200 species of fish and 600 species ofcoral. Researchers have estimated that there are between 3 and 30 million species on Earth, with a few studies predicting that there may be more than 100 million species on Earth. Available at: https://www.protectedplanet.net/555703557. Available at: https://www.protectedplanet.net/555703562, UNEP-WCMC (2023) Protected Area Profile for Sudochye-Akpetki State Wildlife Sanctuary from the World Database on Protected Areas. However, it is crucial to mention that the success of NbS and the long-term effectiveness of their socio-economic benefits highly depend on the environmental awareness (Gmez Martn, Mez Costa, Egerer, & Schneider, 2021), and thus perception and understanding of NbS and their potential benefits. There are millions more species yet to be discovered and named. x Despite pressure from housing developments and groundwater depletion, habitat for six imperiled species a warbler, a bat, two salamanders and two plants still exists. The forests of Maine differ from the forests of Colorado by the types of species found in both ecosystems, as well as the temperature and rainfall. To distinguish NbS from other conservation actions, IUCN specifies seven societal challenges, at least one of which needs to be addressed. At the highest level, one can look at all the different species on the entire Earth. Wetland restoration is a promising tool in many areas that could potentially compete with afforestation/reforestation in terms of carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation potential (Taillardat, Thompson, Garneau, Trottier, & Friess, 2020), (Seddon, et al., 2020), (Tanneberger, et al., 2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11625-020-00836-4. As large-scale afforestation of the former Aral seabed is planned to continue through 2030, as stipulated by the Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of UzbekistanFootnote 2, there is at the very least a need for planning and monitoring, as well as selection of native species to ensure afforestation success. Environ Manag 25:485512. rep., Land Degradation Neutrality Target Setting Programme of the Secretariat and the Global Mechanism of the UNCCD. 2006, Hooper et al. Dryland areas have largely expanded in Asia since mid-twentieth century stretching towards north latitudes, triggering water stress and limiting ecosystem services (Prvlie, 2016), (Yao, Fu, Liu, Wang, & Song, 2021). Local, national, andinternational organizations are cooperating to preserve the biodiversity of regions threatened by development or natural disasters.UNESCOsWorld Heritage Siteprogram recognizes areas of global importance, such as the enormous wetland region of thePantanalin South America. https://doi.org/10.1080/20442041.2021.1936865, Plieninger T, Muoz-Rojas J, Buck LE, Scherr SJ (2020) Agroforestry for sustainable landscape management. Wetlands in the Aral Sea basin are reported to be unstable in terms of their hydrological regimes and are highly dependent on the water inflow, which in turn defines their salinity levels and ability to support native biodiversity (Schlter, et al., 2013). The most prominent native species in terms of the ability to grow in sandy, loamy and saline soils are reported to be Saxaul (Haloxylon), Salsola Richteri (Moq) Karel ex Litv and Calligonum caput-medusae Schrenk (Bakirov, Khamzaev, & Novitskiy, 2020), Krascheninnikovia eversmanniana and Artemisia ferganensis (Shomurodov, et al., 2021). https://doi.org/10.3906/zoo-1311-40, Khamzina A, Lamers JP, Worbes M, Botman E, Vlek PL (2006) Assessing the potential of trees for afforestation of degraded landscapes in the Aral Sea Basin of Uzbekistan. As part of the Aichi Biodiversity Target 11, to which Uzbekistan has committed (CBD-UNDP, 2021), protected areas highly contribute to achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Hence, these examples do not fully satisfy NbS definition framed by the IUCN, which stipulates provision of societal benefits as a result of NbS approaches. They also provide food, shade, construction material, medicines, andfiberfor clothing and paper. Of these, beetles are some of the most numerous species. Drylands are rich in biodiversity and contain rare and endemic species that are not present in other biomes (IUCN, 2017). National Geographic Society is a 501 (c)(3) organization. Hip-hop artist calls for cultivating a healthier planet. The language used for the non-systematic literature review was English only (as the Russian language does not distinguish and define NbS specifically). Private landowners may be reluctant to report them or allow surveys for fear of the restrictions that could follow if they are found. You can specify conditions of storing and accessing cookies in your browser. Photo credit: NASA Earth Observatory, Google Earth. The government of Uzbekistan has officially stated that it will now be impossible to restore the Aral Sea to its former (pre-1960) state, and has instead committed to mitigate the consequences of this ecological disaster on human wellbeing, environment and the local economy. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40333-018-0073-3. projecting the likely impacts on biodiversity and nature's . Without a diversity of pollinators, plants, and soils, our supermarkets would have a lot less produce. . 3. The climate and the plants in a biome determine what animals live there. Jamba 10. https://doi.org/10.4102/jamba.v10i1.400, Bonn A, Allott T, Evans M, Joosten H, Stoneman R (2016) Peatland restoration and ecosystem services: Nature-based solutions for societal goals. The formal conceptualization defines NbS as actions to protect, sustainably manage, and restore natural or modified ecosystems, that address societal challenges effectively and adaptively, simultaneously providing human well-being and biodiversity benefits (IUCN, 2016). The relative cost-efficiency of NbS (Bonn, Allott, Evans, Joosten, & Stoneman, 2016), (Girardin, et al., 2021) has led to their increased popularity recently.NbS offer quite a range of benefits (Seddon, et al., 2020), (Girardin, et al., 2021), including biodiversity conservation, ecosystem restoration, climate change mitigation and adaptation.As drylands around the world are projected to . Google Scholar, Aleksandrova M, Lamers JP, Martius C, Tischbein B (2014) Rural vulnerability to environmental change in the irrigated lowlands of Central Asia and options for policy-makers: A review. Due to the impact of afforestation on soil carbon both positively and negatively (Seddon, et al., 2020), selection of appropriate sites and species turn out to be a key to success, but most importantly, afforestation should be implemented with the application of native and/or endemic species to avoid introduction of invasive alien species. Nonetheless, wetlands in the Aral Sea basin serve as an important habitat both for inland waterbirds and for the migratory species in Central Asia (Kasprzykowski, Goawski, Mitrus, & Staski, 2014). https://doi.org/10.1080/15481603.2021.2009232. Wetlands, as a potentially cost-effective nature-based solution (Seifollahi-Aghmiuni, Nockrach, & Kalantari, 2019), provide a range of ecosystem services, including food security, climate adaptation and mitigation by acting as natural carbon sinks, and biodiversity conservation (Thorslund, et al., 2017), (Seifollahi-Aghmiuni, Nockrach, & Kalantari, 2019), (Taillardat, Thompson, Garneau, Trottier, & Friess, 2020). https://doi.org/10.1017/s0030605311001608. The Southeastern United States has a high concentration of freshwater mussels, those humble mollusks that help keep streams and rivers clean by filtering water. https://doi.org/10.1080/24749508.2021.1923271, Belle JA, Collins N, Jordaan A (2018) Managing wetlands for disaster risk reduction: A case study of the eastern Free State, South Africa. We go on to specifically consider the possibility of applying selected NbS approaches in the Aral Sea region of Uzbekistan, as a case study of a dryland ecosystem illustrating major environmental and social challenges. The most diverse group of animals are invertebrates. Land Degrad Dev 27:18311839. How urban centers across the globe help boost biodiversity. Review of Nature-based Solutions in Dryland Ecosystems: the Aral Sea Case Study. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2011.10.004, Matsui K, Watanabe T, Kussainova M, Funakawa S (2019) Soil properties that determine the mortality and growth of Haloxylon aphyllum in the Aral region, Kazakhstan. Areas permanently protected for biodiversity. Rewilding as an option to restore local biodiversity can have promising outcomes in eliminating damages caused by introduced species. Google Scholar, Djalilov BM, Khamzina A, Hornidge A-K, Lamers JP (2016) Exploring constraints and incentives for the adoption of agroforestry practices on degraded cropland in Uzbekistan. Every time a species goes extinct or genetic diversity is lost, we will never know whether research would have given us a new vaccine or drug. Antarctica, covered almost entirely by an ice sheet, has low biodiversity. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-5684-7_38. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/LTD/N21/115/89/pdf/N2111589.pdf? Land 11. https://doi.org/10.3390/land11010107, Williams WD (1999) Conservation of wetlands in drylands: A key global issue. The issue with low plant survival rates on the dried-out seabed in Uzbekistan is not uncommon: according to Shomurodov et al., (2021), survival rate of plant species in afforested areas is as low as 20%. Gland: IUCN Publications Unit, IUCN (2017) Drylands and land degradation. Maps like these offer a valuable tool to officials and conservationists who are scrambling to protect biodiversity. https://doi.org/10.1006/bioe.2001.0013, Roberts CM, OLeary BC, Hawkins JP (2020) Climate change mitigation and nature conservation both require higher protected area targets. (2020b) https://lex.uz/ru/docs/5123920, Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan on additional measures related to the organization of protected areas on forestlands. The term nature-based solutions is relatively new, hence more evidence-based documentation of success stories around the world is needed to validate both cost-efficiency and long-term applicability of these practices, especially in those regions with newly formed ecosystems like the Aralkum. Its sometimes assumed that wildlife in national forests is automatically protected. The chart shows information about four ecosystems. 2). Interface Focus 10. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2019.0129, Tanneberger F, Appulo L, Ewert S, Lakner S, Brolchin N, Peters J, Wichtmann W (2021) The Power of Nature-Based Solutions: How Peatlands Can Help Us to Achieve Key EU Sustainability Objectives. Plants, for instance, help humans by giving off oxygen. Both the ecosystem and the human population of the region are under considerable pressure due to the consequences of the Aral Sea desiccation. . Forests provide homes for animals. PubMedGoogle Scholar. https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2935, Girardin CA, Jenkins S, Seddon N, Allen M, Lewis SL, Wheeler CE, Malhi Y (2021) Nature-based solutions can help cool the planet - if we act now. Extinction is a natural process; some species naturally die out while new speciesevolve. As biodiversity decreases, these systems break down.Hundreds of industries rely on plant biodiversity.Agriculture, construction, medical andpharmaceutical, fashion, tourism, andhospitalityall depend on plants for their success. And NbS is a sustainable approach with minimal negative impacts on the society or the environment (Dubey, Singh, Chaurasia, Pandey, & Singh, 2021). In the long term, rehabilitation of degraded rangelands in the Aral Sea basin has a potential to improve livelihood options of local pastoralists. There are not enough insects to pollinate large fields of single crops, so farmers must truck in honeybees to do the job. We're on the ground in seven regions across the country, collaborating with 52 state and territory affiliates to reverse the crisis and ensure wildlife thrive. If you have questions about how to cite anything on our website in your project or classroom presentation, please contact your teacher. Ecosystems that host the most biodiversity tend to have ideal environmental conditions for plant growth, like the warm and wet climate of tropical regions. Results on blue and/or green urban infrastructure, coastal ecosystems, and on areas not considered as drylands by the UNCCCD (2017) were excluded. All sources of publications were considered in the review. Annotated List of Wetlands of International Importance: Uzbekistan, 2022), however, there are none located in Karakalpakstan. The snakes, which hunt birds, have caused the extinction of nine of the islands 11 native forest-dwellingbird species.People all over the world are working to maintain the planets biodiversity. Moreover, literature review explicitly revealed that wetland restoration in the Aral Sea basin has never been documented as a nature-based solution, nor has rangeland restoration been.

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